Phi Sigma Kappa (ΦΣK), colloquially known as Phi Sig, is a general men's social and academic fraternity with more than 90 active chapters and colonies in North America. According to its Constitution, Phi Sigma Kappa is devoted to its three cardinal principles: the Promotion of Brotherhood, the Stimulation of Scholarship, and the Development of Character.
Phi Sigma Kappa was founded on March 15, 1873 at Massachusetts Agricultural College in Amherst (now the University of Massachusetts Amherst) by six sophomores, recognized as The Founders. Phi Sigma Kappa merged with Phi Sigma Epsilon in 1985, in the largest successful merger of Greek-letter fraternities in history.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization and legal status
- 3 Members
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
History[edit | edit source]
Founding[edit | edit source]
Massachusetts Agricultural College in Amherst, now the University of Massachusetts Amherst, is the setting for the founding of Phi Sigma Kappa. Among its other students in the early 1870s, it had attracted six men of varied backgrounds, ages, abilities, and goals in life who saw the need for a new and different kind of society on campus. Early members recalled that it was Henry Hague who suggested that, since the six were close and were not interested in either of the two local fraternities on campus, they create their own. The six sophomores, meeting in Old North Hall, banded together during the summer of 1873 to form a "society to promote morality, learning and social culture."
The six Founders of Phi Sigma Kappa were:
- Jabez William Clay
- Joseph Francis Barrett
- Henry Hague
- Xenos Young Clark
- Frederick George Campbell
- William Penn Brooks
The six were active college students, members of literary and academic societies and athletic groups, and editors of campus publications. Three were military lieutenants and Brooks was a captain. Hague and Brooks even ran the college store. Academic leaders as well, "it cannot be too strongly stressed that these men were the best students in [the] college."  On March 15, 1873, the Founders met in secret. Brooks already had prepared a constitution and symbolism, and Hague had designed a ritual. The first meeting seemed destined to succeed, for the individuals all had done their work well. The ritual has been changed only six times since, and never drastically. The symbolism and esoteric structure have never been altered. Clay was elected president of the group -- which for its first five years had no name. Its cryptic characters could not be pronounced, either, though Brooks recalled that outsiders referred to them as "T, double T, T upside-down."
Grand Chapter[edit | edit source]
The Grand Chapter of Phi Sigma Kappa was organized in 1878, five years after the founding of Alpha Chapter, to tie alumni and undergraduates in a continuing relationship. Charles Sumner Howe, an 1876 initiate, was elected its first Grand President (at the age of 20). Phi Sigma Kappa was adopted as the group's official name that same year after four years of debate and the work of seven committees.
Expansion[edit | edit source]
Originally, only one chapter was contemplated by the founders. And although the germ of expansion arrived early, its period of gestation consumed 13 years. As early as 1875 an inquiry had been received from a group at Maine Agricultural College, and a few years later there was an unexpected letter from the University of New Mexico-but nothing came of either "feeler." In 1878, John A. Cutter was inducted into the group, a man destined to have much to do with the preservation of the order's early records and with its expansion beyond the confines of the Massachusetts campus. He later attended Albany Medical College (in 1873 merged with Union College) and established a group, which became Beta Chapter. Cutter was also instrumental in the establishment of Gamma at Cornell. The transition to a national order was accomplished. These same early years saw the pin (or badge) adopted essentially as it is today; an induction ritual, which embodied the concept of universal brotherhood and expanded the order's horizons beyond Massachusetts, was written in 1890; the establishment of the Fraternity's magazine, The Signet, and the first chapter out of the Northeast came into being at West Virginia University (1891).
"Bigness was never one of our ideas," Big Chief Barrett said in later years, admonishing a convention that was getting starry-eyed over dozens of new expansion possibilities. And the principle has held; though Phi Sigma Kappa stands high among national orders, size alone has never been a major consideration or goal.
Phi Sig's value to other campuses was as an organization offering something special and valuable to persons of varying backgrounds. Massachusetts Agricultural − Aggie − was more egalitarian, open to men of average means but high potential, and not filled with the class-conscious scions of Boston and New York society. In many ways it has kept this ethic throughout its expansion. It never was simply another fraternity to be invited. Founder Brooks, four years before his death in 1938, put it this way: "We believe that our fraternity exerts a powerful influence for good in national college life. The thought which lay in the minds of the Founders was good. May our brothers never forget that the foundation for a useful and satisfying life must be thought -- thought resulting in the visualization of a high ideal; and the determination to use all of one's strength of body, mind and soul for its realization."
Even Canadian campuses were not excluded in the thinking of those who carried new chapters in all directions shortly after the turn of the century. Rho Chapter was organized at Queen's College at Kingston, Ontario in 1903, and seventeen other units were added during the decade. Under Cutter's and Barrett's leadership, the national organization was strengthened, and work was begun among the alumni to support their continued interest in the Fraternity after graduation. The Greek system's uniqueness among American organizations is based partly on this principle – the idea of continued involvement for members after undergraduate days. Phi Sigma Kappa was one of the early leaders in such efforts and remains one of the strongest alumni-oriented groups. If Founder Brooks' assessment of its purpose is true, then there would be no end to the Fraternity's influence on its members, and its role in their lives -- another vital part of Phi Sig's heritage.
Though the admonition against "bigness for bigness' sake" was always there, the demand to serve campuses wherever they might be was equally loud. In 1909, for example (after the Grand Council had earlier refused to put a chapter on the West Coast because of the distance involved and because it feared such a chapter would be denied the visits and services of a nearby headquarters), the Fraternity spanned the continent. The Ridge Road Club of the University of California, Berkeley became Omega Chapter -- fittingly utilizing the last letter of the Greek alphabet and preparing the way for the first of the Deuteron or second-series units. This national aspect did not escape the notice of the mid-continent; within six months, petitions were received from Minnesota, Illinois and Iowa State. Some who were there tell that the induction ceremonies at the early Deuteron units often included a reminder in the form of Founder Hague's benediction on the night of March 15, 1873, words that still ring of idealism and true worth: "Let us . . . keep on growing till our beloved fraternity shall become full grown . . ., having the strength to help and protect its members, wisdom to guide them to helpful and good things as to college life, and love so warm that its members shall feel its kindly glow, that brotherly love may indeed be a reality and not an idea."
Phi Sigma Kappa became a founding member of the North-American Interfraternity Conference, or NIC, in 1910.
The Crash of 1929[edit | edit source]
Phi Sig did not escape the Great Depression; no fraternal order did. But like many of them, she came out of it wiser and stronger for the experience, filled with the knowledge that brotherhood based on a heritage of helpfulness and value cannot be submerged by a flood of economic hardship. Undergraduate delegates had fathered a plan at the 1930 Convention that channeled 25 cents each month from each active member into a fund to assist chapters stricken by the Depression; the principal of mutual helpfulness could not have been better illustrated. Low manpower, too, had brought about fraternal belt-tightening and more significant national services - training in rushing techniques, a pledge manual, better accounting systems and visits by field representatives.
But perhaps the most significant development of these years came out of the 1934 Convention in Ann Arbor. Brother Stewart W. Herman of Gettysburg wrote and presented the Creed, and Brother Ralph Watts of Massachusetts drafted and presented the Cardinal Principles. More than half-century later they stand as Phi Sigma Kappa's heritage personified, as much a part of the Fraternity's individuality as any of its more ancient rituals and symbolism.
World War II[edit | edit source]
The 1938 Convention adopted the six-degree membership structure to honor the six Founders, especially as a tribute to Founder Brooks, who had died only a few weeks earlier. The first professional manager of the Fraternity was hired that same year, marking still another organizational response to growing needs in a critical period. For the hardships of World War I and the Great Depression were scarcely overcome when World War II arrived. The extraordinary efforts by which the Fraternity survived are another and longer story; the important fact is that Phi Sig did survive. The 1948 Convention in Boston marked the 75th anniversary of the founding. There were 52 active chapters; the Phi Sigma Kappa Foundation had been established, primarily to reward good scholarship among brothers; and The Signet was guaranteed to all members for life under a plan that had few parallels in the Greek world at that time. D. R. (Spec) Collins of Iowa, one of the Fraternity's most dynamic leaders of the post-World War II years, reaffirmed the heritage in more modern terms: "The Founders very wisely developed the ritual and philosophy of the fraternity on the base of service to its members. The Cardinal Principles of Phi Sigma Kappa are the development of brotherhood, scholarship and character . . . There is nothing in our Cardinal Principles about prestige, the most beautiful house, the best social program, [being] 'number one on campus' in intramurals, activities, etc. These are all frosting on the cake. A fraternity chapter which truly serves its purpose helps its members in their own personal development. Thus I do not believe a chapter, which pledges students who are already top scholars and which wins a scholarship cup year-in and year-out, performs any distinctive service. That chapter which pledges average students, however, and encourages them in developing their own academic capabilities to the utmost, deserves the scholarship cup. The same is true of character. If we pledge only the most polished and mature individuals, there is little left for the chapter to do for these people. The fraternity can and should take average college students and help them develop their own character, and help them learn to live together in brotherhood."
"My fraternity did something for me when I was in school. It helped me to learn to live with others and to develop my own personal, moral, and social attributes, so that I could fit better into the society which I found when I left the University. The services of fraternity supplemented those of my family, my church and my teachers. For this reason I am willing to continue to work for my fraternity -- so long as my fraternity is working to serve its individual members."
Turbulent times[edit | edit source]
The post World War II era saw Phi Sigma Kappa recover from the worst consequences of that crisis, after which Phi Sigma Kappa and all Greek organizations had to address issues related to membership restrictions, hazing, and the need for responsible programming which complements the educational mission of our host institutions. Phi Sigma Kappa responded to these challenges by removing unwarranted restrictions on qualifications for membership, acting in concert with other NIC fraternities to eliminate hazing, and revising the membership education program to reflect its purpose of building a true appreciation of the fraternal principles. Still, another challenge to fraternities occurred with the anti-Greek feeling which spread throughout the country in the late 1960s and 1970s. Membership in Greek organizations declined significantly during these years, and a number of chapters were lost.
Civil rights[edit | edit source]
Among all collegiate fraternities, Phi Sigma Kappa has had a relatively minimal share of the disharmony that other fraternities, and indeed all of society, faced during the Civil Rights Era. As a primarily New England and Western fraternity, its impulses followed a more progressive course in these matters. Its Southern chapters, even if themselves not instigating social change, were nevertheless soon accommodating to the needs of other chapters where change was more rapid. Importantly, Phi Sig chapters were open to race integration by 1956. It is crucial to understand these matters in the context that this time in America was an era of rampant segregation. It would be a decade and a half before Civil Rights legislation of 1964 and 1965 would become the law of the land. Many other fraternities struggled with race-related intolerance through the 1960s.
The post WWII era ushered in new opportunities for social and occupational mixing that had hitherto been static. After the integration of the military, colleges and universities were among the first civil institutions to experience the new paradigm. Phi Sigma Kappa's chapters, like almost all Fraternities and Sororities, had previously not taken in minorities in any scale except for the occasional foreign student. At the 1952 Bedford Springs Convention the Southern Chapters and some of the other Chapters, mainly outside of New England and the East wanted an understanding that it would not pledge "negroes" and offered legislation to this end called "The Bedford Resolution." The Bedford Resolution read, "That the fraternity's tradition be maintained in the sense that there be no pledging or initiating of Negro men until such time as they are acceptable to all chapters." "Bedford" had passed, narrowly, but the matter was by no means settled. Negative reaction was swift. Immediately thereafter, Phi Sigma Kappa lost several chapters following the passage of the Resolution. The Alpha Triton Chapter at Wesleyan University disaffliliated itself rather than de-pledge a black student it had pledged in good faith, and reformed itself as Gamma Psi. Chapters at Boston University, Hartwick College & Knox College were expelled from the Grand Chapter in 1953-55 for pledging an African-American student. The Hartwick College chapter reverted to its former local status as Alpha Delta Omega. The Tau Chapter at Dartmouth College disaffiliated from Phi Sigma Kappa, citing "racist membership policies" of the fraternity as its motivation. Tau became a local fraternity, keeping the "Phi" of Phi Sigma Kappa" and the "Tau" from being the Tau Corporation of Phi Sigma Kappa, becoming the new organization of Phi Tau, in May 1956.
These scattered incidents were instructive to the Fraternity. "Bedford" was only a policy, and more easily changed as compared to a Constitutional measure or Bylaw. At the 1954 Convention "Bedford" was repealed in favor of a non-legislative "Gentlemen's Agreement" to ban non-whites. This short-lived, informal Gentleman's Agreement encouraged local chapters not to admit minorities to membership. But two years later, at the 1956 Convention, the Gentlemen's Agreement itself was dropped.
The fear of the divisive nature of the issue, rather than the fact of race, was paramount to the Fraternity's leaders. As an example, in a letter dated June 28, 1954, D.R. "Spec" Collins, the then-President of Phi Sigma Kappa, announced that from his point of view, "the entire fraternity system-which is truly an American institution engaged in the service of building good American citizens–is being challenged. Challenged by those subversive elements who, by encouraging us to quarrel among ourselves may cause us to destroy ourselves. The 'divide and conquer strategy' that might well eliminate a great American institution."  According to President Collins, members should be warned that an anti-discrimination issue would be raised at the next Phi Sigma Kappa convention, and that members should guard against "subversive elements." Yet within two years, the issue was ready to be dropped, never to be raised again. Still, the damage had been done: reactionary Tau had left in the middle of the debate, along with several other chapters.
Immediately following the 1956 Convention, Phi Chapter pledged a black man from the Gold Coast. The Grand President took the stance that he would not suspend the Chapter, since neither the Bedford Resolution, nor any other "agreement" was in place. Hence, in the span of six years, the issue was raised, argued, and then dropped: At the 1958 Convention there was little discussion of the matter, and Phi Sigma Kappa, to its lasting credit, solved the issue much earlier than most Fraternities and Sororities. The Fraternity had no further race-related problems between 1958 and the present day.
In 2009 some delegates to that year's convention felt that a definitive statement on the issue of discrimination should be incorporated into the Constitution itself. Not driven because of a problem concerning the issue, and with universal support, Phi Sigma Kappa amended its Constitution to include the following nondiscrimination clause, the spirit of which it had already been following for many decades:
"No chapter shall discriminate in recruitment or in membership based on race, color, religion, national origin, age, disability, ethnic background, sexual orientation, veteran status, marital status, parental status, or political affiliation."
Merger[edit | edit source]
Phi Sigma Kappa first discussed mergers at the onset of World War II when most fraternities were in danger of falling apart as students went to war. The issue was not discussed seriously again on a national level for decades.
In 1980, a Phi Sigma Kappa Council meeting included the subject of mergers on its agenda. The outcome of the discussion was the conclusion that Phi Sigma Kappa would only participate in a merger if it was the continuing fraternity: Phi Sigma Kappa was open to absorbing a smaller fraternity.
In 1984, a chapter of Phi Sigma Epsilon placed a call to the national headquarters of Phi Sigma Kappa to discuss the fact that several Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters were unhappy with the services of their national organization and that they were interested in Phi Sigma Kappa's expansion efforts. These chapters were considering a change in national affiliation which is not possible under rules of the NIC. A call was made between the presidents of both national organizations but a merger was not explored. 
Later on in the fall of 1984, the two fraternities were placed next to each other at a table during the NIC conference. Discussions commenced and the members at the conference discovered that they had more in common than the first two letters of their respective fraternity's names. Phi Sigma Epsilon's beliefs in justice, wisdom, and honor closely paralleled Phi Sigma Kappa's cardinal principles of brotherhood, scholarship, and character. Phi Sigma Epsilon was in the midst of difficult administrative and financial circumstances and most chapters were in the interior of the contiguous United States. Phi Sigma Kappa, although relatively strong both administratively and financially, was concentrated on the east and west coasts of the country. It was found that both organizations had similar rituals upon the report of a brother of Phi Sigma Epsilon who had become an adviser of a Phi Sigma Kappa chapter. That chapter had allowed the faculty adviser to view the rituals of Phi Sigma Kappa. This was an error on the part of the Phi Sigma Kappa chapter but it allowed the two national organizations to otherwise resolve the awkward question of how similar their secrets were. 
Chapter questionnaires, meetings, and communications regarding a merger would occupy both fraternities over the course of several months. Phi Sigma Epsilon narrowly voted in favor of the merger in June 1985. Phi Sigma Kappa's convention was not until August but initial responses were overwhelmingly positive. 
On August 14, 1985, the merger was approved and formalized. In a stroke of good fortune for the two national bodies there was only one school, Cornell University, which had active chapters of both fraternities. Younger, and smaller, the Phi Sigma Epsilon chapter was released to affiliate with another national fraternity. 
At the Convention in 1987 in Long Beach, California, two years following the merger, the crest, Associate Member (pledge) pin and flag were changed in order to incorporate the symbolism of Phi Sigma Epsilon.
Alumni of PSE chapters that merged into Phi Sigma Kappa are accorded the same rank or honors as they held in PSE. Where Phi Sigma Kappa HQ has accurate mailing addresses, they also receive Fraternity mailings and chapter news.
Dissension[edit | edit source]
Almost all Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters and all Phi Sigma Kappa chapters participated in the merger, which was noted as the largest and most successful collegiate fraternal merger ever.
Leaders of both fraternities made great attempts to be sensitive to the pain of change and emotions of loss that any such merger would naturally entail. There were pockets of dissent, and not all chapters nor all alumni of Phi Sigma Epsilon participated. Soon after the merger, unable or unwilling to commit to another national, the former PSE chapter at Cornell disbanded itself, and its building was sold to Alpha Chi Omega sorority. Other PSE chapters were found to be non-viable or had simply vanished in the time since a PSE officer had last visited or corresponded, and these were formally closed. Eventually, following several disaffected alumni leaders of Phi Sigma Epsilon, seven PSE chapters would go on to form Phi Sigma Phi in 1988.  Today, both groups seek to focus on their own futures, and maintain a posture of civility and cooperation on those occasions where they cross paths. Considering their shared history and the economic difficulties of supporting full-time operations with a small base of chapter revenue, Phi Sigma Kappa has consistently maintained it would welcome future inquiries toward cooperation from Phi Sigma Phi and her chapters, as a homecoming.
Phi Sigma Kappa continues to teach new members its enlarged historical record, marking milestones of both original fraternities.
Recent Times[edit | edit source]
More recently, expansion efforts have been increased, and now significantly outpace chapter closures, bringing in schools where Phi Sigma Kappa has not had an historical presence, as well as revitalizing troubled groups or dormant groups. This period of expansion has been entwined with an assertive effort to ensure the many surviving former Phi Sigma Epsilon chapters were fully integrated into the larger Fraternity, and fully served. Several have had to be re-colonized, an effort that continues today. Aggressive risk management training has allowed Phi Sig to avoid, for the most part, headline-making news about hazing incidents. Key expansion targets, and the return to long-established campuses where chapters have been lost has been another focus. While the Fraternity has not lost sight of the attitude of its Founders to not seek bigness for its own sake, Phi Sigma Kappa's Grand Council affirmed a desire for purposeful expansion in the 1980's and 90's which has enhanced its ability to provide the programs and services expected of a strong international fraternity.
Since the merger, Phi Sigma Kappa has grown at a rate of at least two chapters per year.
Naming system[edit | edit source]
Chapters are individually designated by a Chapter Name. The original 24 chapters are called, in order, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, etc., thru to Omega. Following this, the "Deuteron" series began with Alpha Deuteron, then Beta Deuteron, Gamma Deuteron, and continuing through to Omega Deuteron. As of 2010, eight naming series have been established. Several other fraternities and sororities use a similar naming system. The Greek-based designations used by Phi Sigma Kappa include:
- Original Series, Alpha through Omega
- Deuteron Series, or second series
- Triton Series, or third series
- Tetarton Series, or fourth series
- Pentaton Series, or fifth series
- Hexaton Series, or sixth series
- Septaton Series, or seventh series
- Octaton Series, or eighth series
Phi Sigma Epsilon brought its own naming system to the Fraternity. In respect to the sensitivity of the merger in general, it was quickly decided that incoming PSE chapters could with pride maintain either their original chapter names or a chapter name that evoked their source in PSE. These naming series are:
- Epsilon Series, original oldest 24 PSE chapters
- Phi Series, second PSE series
- Sigma Series, third PSE series
Additionally, the three founding chapters of Phi Sigma Epsilon were honored by reversing in their names the letters "Epsilon Alpha" into Alpha Epsilon, "Epsilon Beta" into Beta Epsilon, and "Epsilon Gamma" into Gamma Epsilon, signifying their role in the formation of Phi Sigma Epsilon. The fourth oldest PSE chapter is Epsilon Delta, with the naming convention remaining more or less consistent, depending on the age of the chapter, and with some exceptions to match most closely the original names of those chapters.
Chapter lists are rendered in order of the original date of chapter founding.
Re-colonizations where both groups existed but where they both are dormant usually take on the name of the older dormant chapter, although some exceptions have been made if the alumni base has a clear preference.
New chapters where there has been neither a PSK nor PSE chapter will continue the Octaton series, or further series, as needed.
Organization and legal status[edit | edit source]
Phi Sigma Kappa is divided into three distinct entities: Phi Sigma Kappa Fraternity, Phi Sigma Kappa Foundation, and Phi Sigma Kappa Properties. The Phi Sigma Kappa International Headquarters is staffed by administrators who handle many of the day-to-day operations in the fraternity as well as coordinate and plan many events, meetings, and other programs held by the Grand Chapter and the Foundation.
Phi Sigma Kappa Fraternity[edit | edit source]
Management of the Fraternity (PSK) on a day-to-day basis is vested in the executive vice president, Michael Carey. He and ten full-time staff members support all aspects of chapter operations, expansion, alumni relations, program development, risk management and event coordination. Phi Sigma Kappa's Grand Council operates as its volunteer Board of Directors, composed of one grand president and six directors who guide the Fraternity's future and ensure the implementation of its policies.
Regional Advisers are a liaison between the Fraternity's national officers and undergraduates.
Local Chapter Advisors often serve as another key point of contact between Regional and National staff or volunteers, to the local chapter.
Some individual Phi Sigma Kappa chapters may work with local alumni- or parent-led housing corporations of their own to manage chapter housing, or may work with Phi Sigma Kappa Properties to achieve this same purpose. Local chapter house corporations are separate legal entities from the national structure.
Phi Sigma Kappa Foundation[edit | edit source]
The Foundation (PSKF), incorporated as an entity separate from the Grand Chapter in 1947, serves as the financial backbone of the fraternity. It is facilitated by a Board of Trustees which appropriates funds for various programs and scholarships administered by the Grand Council. The money for this comes from member dues, pledges, and donations. The Foundation is immensely important to the growth and maintenance of the Fraternity. Some of the programs it funds are the Leadership School, Undergraduate Scholarships, the Grand Chapter website, and Regional Conclaves.
Phi Sigma Kappa Properties[edit | edit source]
Phi Sigma Kappa Properties (PSKP) is the newest of the three Phi Sigma Kappa entities but plans to become a full service real estate management and development corporation. PSKP held a long-range planning meeting in August 2005, which was facilitated by Grand Council Director Tim Vojtasko. The organization developed a set of five long-range goals for the next five years and beyond. Those goals include:
- To become the largest (assets owned and managed) property management organization in the Fraternity world
- To double the number of houses owned by a PSK related entity; also 40 houses (owned and managed) in 5 years
- To hire an executive director/CFO with a complete staff of 5 within 5 years
- To develop a world-class model for owning, managing and financing fraternity properties
- To be able to offer all PSK related properties the opportunity to be owned and/or managed by PSKP
Members[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- Rand, Frank Prentice; Ralph Watts, James E. Sefton (1993). All The Phi Sigs - A History. Self-published.
- Scobie, Richard (1956) (Typewritten). A fraternal revolution: the birth of Phi Tau fraternity, as told by one of the principles: Richard Scobie.. http://libcat.dartmouth.edu/record=b2612678.
- Anson, Jack L.; Marchenasi, Robert F., eds. (1991)  (in English) Baird's Manual of American Fraternities (20th ed.)Indianapolis, IN: Baird's Manual Foundation, Inc.p. III-96
- Crandall, Brian (12-29-2009). "This Isn't Your Father's Fraternity". Wordpress.com. http://brancra.wordpress.com/category/greek-history/. Retrieved September 14, 2013.
- "The History of Phi Sigma Phi". http://phisigmaphi.org/history-of-phi-sigma-phi/. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- Phi Sigma Kappa. "FAQs". Self-Published. http://www.phisigmakappa.org/?action=about_faqs. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- Phi Sigma Kappa. "Relationship With The Fraternity". Self-Published. http://www.phisigmakappa.org/?action=foundation_aboutfoundation_relationship. Retrieved May 28, 2008.
- Phi Sigma Kappa. "Goals". Self-Published. http://www.phisigmakappa.org/?action=properties_goals. Retrieved April 28, 2008.
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