Teresa Ann "Terry" Sullivan (born July 9, 1949) is the Interim Provost and Executive Vice President for Academic Affairs of Michigan State University. She is a retired American sociologist and university administrator and previously served as the President of the University of Virginia from August 1, 2010 until July 31, 2018.[1]

The Virginia Glee Club performed for Sullivan many times during her presidency, including an appearance at the University of Michigan before she took the office on the Tour of the Northeast (2010).

Early life[edit | edit source]

Sullivan was born on July 9, 1949.[2] In 1970, she received her undergraduate degree from Michigan State University's James Madison College, where she was asked to stay on as an intern in the office of the president by Clifton R. Wharton Jr., then the president. She completed her Ph.D. at the University of Chicagoin 1975.[2]

Career[edit | edit source]

She joined the faculty of the University of Texas as an instructor in sociology. At Texas, she held a variety of academic and administrative posts, including the chair of the sociology department, vice provost, and vice president and dean of graduate studies.[3] She then served as the Provost and Executive Vice President for Academic Affairs at the University of Michigan.

Sullivan has written or cowritten six books and over 80 scholarly articles in sociology.[4] In 1990, she co-authored The Social Organization of Work with Randy Hodson, which was described as a "pathbreaking textbook in the sociology of work" by Daniel B. Cornfield.[5] She is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences.[6]

Consumer Bankruptcy Project[edit | edit source]

In the 1980s, Sullivan worked with legal scholars Elizabeth Warren and Jay Lawrence Westbrook on what could become Phase I of the Consumer Bankruptcy Project, which, at its time, was the largest study of consumer bankruptcy in the United States.[7] The study broke new ground and challenged perceptions concerning what kind of people were filing for bankruptcy and the circumstances that ultimately drove them to declare bankruptcy. After conducting their own study of bankrupt debtors, Sullivan, Warren, and Westbrook published “Limiting Access to Bankruptcy Discharge: An Analysis of the Creditor’s Data,” in 1983 in order to demonstrate that many of the perceptions of bankruptcy that circulated in popular press and political rhetoric were based on a flawed Purdue Study of bankruptcy.[8] The authors outlined key assumptions made by the authors of the Purdue Study and errors in sampling and data calculation—including errors of coverage and content.[9]

In 1986, Sullivan, Warren, and Westbrook published “Folklore and Facts: A Preliminary Report from the Consumer Bankruptcy Project," where initial analyses of the data compiled from Phase I of the Consumer Bankruptcy Project suggested that bankruptcy policies made with a “typical debtor” in mind overlooked several subgroups of debtors that made use of bankruptcy.[10] Additionally, the article analyzed debt-income ratios for debtors in the sample to refute a commonly-cited report of “can-pay” debtors who filed for bankruptcy to take advantage of the system. Sullivan, Warren, and Westbrook’s calculations showed that the average debtor in the sample owed more than three years of their income and were in no position to pay their debts.[11]

In 1987, Sullivan, Warren and Westbrook published “The Use of Empirical Data in Formulating Bankruptcy Policy,” an article that argued that empirical methods were needed in both revising and reforming bankruptcy policy to ensure policies accomplished their objectives.[12] The authors called for the standardization of bankruptcy data, gathering a mix of regular and episodic data, and the funding of studies that facilitated data collection.[13]

In 1988, Sullivan, Warren and Westbrook published “Laws, Models, and Real people,” which sought to challenge the notion that economic incentives and disincentives were the main factors that determined how Americans filed for bankruptcy under the economic model that shaped bankruptcy policy at the time.[14] The authors’ review of personal bankruptcy information in three states demonstrated that in addition to economic factors that contributed to a debtor’s decision to file for bankruptcy, intra-and interstate migration, marital status, self-employment, state of residence, and the local legal culture of a locality also played a part[15] The study also showed a lack of impact and promised effects amendments to the bankruptcy code were having[16]

Among the major findings of Phase I of the Consumer Bankruptcy Project were the number of self-employed entrepreneurs who found themselves filing for consumer bankruptcy. While this group of debtors might have had higher income and assets than the majority debtors in the sample, self-employed debtors also had three times more debt—making them in worse financial shape than wage earners.[17] Another major finding of the study was that homeowners made up 52% of debtors in the sample.[18] The authors suggested that homeowners ended up in bankruptcy for many of the same reasons that non-homeowners do—fluctuations in income and job interruptions—, but that that homeowners in bankruptcy sometimes had multiple mortgages on a home.[19] Finally, Phase I of the Consumer Bankruptcy Study also showed that those seeking bankruptcy were largely part of the American middle-class, challenging the common wisdom at the time which saw bankruptcy as a refuge for the poor and homeless.[20]

The findings of Phase 1 of this project culminated in several academic articles as well as the 1989 book-length study, As We Forgive Our Debtors: Bankruptcy and Consumer Credit in America. This book was given the Silver Gavel Award in 1990 by the American Bar Association and was a finalist for the American Sociological Association’s Distinguished Scholarly Contribution competition.[21] The authors were also invited to give testimony before congressional committees, state legislatures, and the National Commission on Bankruptcy Reform to explain the findings of their study and what their study uncovered about the American consumer bankruptcy system, its strengths, and its weaknesses.[21]

Phase II of the Consumer Bankruptcy Project broadened the scope of the first study and included questionnaires filled out by bankrupt debtors filing for bankruptcy in 1991. While the first study focused on answering questions about who was filing for bankruptcy, the second study explored the relationship between bankruptcy and America’s middle class.[22]

In 1994, Sullivan published “Methodological Realities: Social Science Methods and Business Reorganizations,” which outlined a proposal for a five-year business bankruptcy study that would draw on data from both systemic samples and case studies of businesses filing for bankruptcy—just as Phase II of the Consumer Bankruptcy Project had in its investigation of consumer bankruptcy.[23] The proposed study sought to evaluate how well business bankruptcy laws were working by combating a tendency to let the larger business bankruptcy and bankruptcy declared by corporations overshadow the bankruptcy cases of smaller business, while also demonstrating the variation in business bankruptcy activity that was impacted by certain variations like the petitioner, the chapter of bankruptcy that the business is filing under, and locale of the business.[24]

Also in 1994, Sullivan, Warren, and Westbrook published “Consumer Debtors Ten Years Later: A Financial Comparison of Consumer Bankrupts 1981-1991.” The article reflected on the three-fold rise in the number of bankruptcies in America between 1981 and 1991.[25] The authors found that rather than people abusing of the bankruptcy system, that there was greater need for the system than ever before due to lower relative incomes for filers, extended unemployment periods, the increasing number of poor debtors accumulating credit card debt, and the increase in legal services to help debtors through the bankruptcy process.[26] In the midst of a political climate that increasingly called for stricter laws that would combat alleged abuse of the bankruptcy system, the authors showed that, overwhelmingly, the debtors taking advantage of the bankruptcy system needed its protection and help with discharging or partially alleviating their debt burdens.[27]

In 1997, Sullivan, Warren, and Westbrook published “Consumer Bankruptcy in the United States: A Study of Alleged Abuse and of Local Legal Culture.” In this article, the authors demonstrate the importance of local legal culture to the bankruptcy system, despite state and national laws designed to promote more uniformity in the bankruptcy process.[28] Sullivan, Warren, and Westbrook developed a definition for local legal culture that refers to “systemic and persistent variations in local legal practices as a consequence of a complex of perceptions and expectations shared by many practitioners and officials in a particular locality and differing in identifiable ways from the practices, perceptions, and expectations existing in other localities subject to the same or a similar formal legal regime.”[29] The authors also described three different models of legal culture that they encountered in their studies of consumer bankruptcy—a judge-dominated model, a lawyer-dominated model, and an extra-legal actor model—and theorized that all three models have a conservative bias that could make them resistant to change.[30]

Phase II of the Consumer Bankruptcy Project showed the increasing debt load of middle class Americans in bankruptcy, as well as the nearly 400 percent increase in bankruptcy filings since the years just prior to Phase I.[31] Sullivan, Warren, and Westbrook found that volatile job markets and divorce were still factors that contributed to bankruptcies for middle class Americans, but their study highlighted both the surge in medical costs and credit card debt as new factors that were leading more debtors to file bankruptcy.[32] The study also reflected the increase in single women filing for bankruptcy, where women had even surpassed men as single petitioners in 1991.[33]

While Phase I of the Consumer Bankruptcy Project focused on identifying who was filing for bankruptcy in America, and Phase II looked specifically at bankruptcy’s role for the middle class, Phase III looked at the impact of bankruptcy on older Americans and women.

In 2000, Melissa B. Jacoby, Sullivan, and Warren published “Rethinking the Debates over Health Care Financing: Evidence from the Bankruptcy Courts,” an article that demonstrated how medical costs were contributing to the tide of rising bankruptcy cases in the late 1990s. The authors showed that single women were more likely to file for bankruptcy due to medical bills and cited women’s lack of access to better jobs and better insurance as compared to men, medical costs associated with reproductive services, and the greater likelihood of female-headed households to have dependents in need of medical care as reasons for the higher numbers of single women bankruptcy filers.[34] Data also showed that nearly half (46.7%) of bankruptcy filers aged 65 or older cited illness or injury as the reason for their bankruptcy filing.[35] While the authors are clear that people without health insurance are likely at risk for financial peril due to health costs and expenses, their study found that many of the bankruptcy filers did have some form of health coverage, but were unable to dull the financial impact of healthcare costs.[36]

In 2005, Sullivan published “Gender Differences in Accounts of Bankruptcy,” an article that analyzed the content of interviews conducted with bankruptcy filers in the L.A. area during the first six months of 2001 in order to show how both conversations and feelings about bankruptcy differed by gender.[37] Sullivan found that when compared to men, women tended to discuss their bankruptcy situations for four times longer than men did and women were more likely to go into detail about their reasons for filing for bankruptcy; Sullivan also found that women’s discourse about bankruptcy was more likely to be emotional, with themes of anger, regret, embarrassment, and shame present in many of the women filer’s responses.[38]

In 2006, Sullivan, Warren, and Westbrook published, “Less Stigma or More Financial Distress: An Empirical Analysis of the Extraordinary Increase in Bankruptcy Filings.” This article responds to amendments made to the bankruptcy code in 2005, which made bankruptcy harder—or in many instances—impossible to declare. Those in favor of the law argued that bankruptcy filings were on the rise because there was no longer stigma attached to the process[39] The authors contested that view and offered evidence to the contrary. They argued that increased bankruptcy filings were the cause of increased financial distress.[40] The author’s data showed that income for those filing for bankruptcy declined by 14% from 1981 to 1991, that families with accumulated assets withstood bankruptcy better than those who do not, that homes were “cement life rafts” for families (who often cling to homes weighted down by debt), that those filing for bankruptcy in 2001 had 55.5% increased debt-load than those filing in 1981, that the average unsecured debt load climbed 48.9% from 1981 to 2001, that debt-to-income ratios to show that median non-mortgage debt for the typical family in bankruptcy would take 9.6 months to work off in 1981 compared to more than a year in 2000, and that middle-class families filing for bankruptcy in 2001 were even worse off financially than those who had filed for bankruptcy in 1981.[41]

In 2009, Deborah Thorne, Warren, and Sullivan published “The Increasing Vulnerability of Older Americans: Evidence from the Bankruptcy Court,” an article that showed the impact that the 2005 Amendments to the Bankruptcy Code were having on America’s seniors.[42] The authors looked at the age distribution of the population generally as well as the median age of debtors in bankruptcy in order to show the increase of bankruptcy filings by older Americans—filings that were more frequently the result of medical costs.[43]

In 2012, Sullivan’s chapter “Debt and Simulation of Social Class,” was included in A Debtor World: Interdisciplinary Perspective on Debt. Sullivan’s chapter argued that debt is an important facet of wealth that is under-researched[44] Sullivan examined research techniques reliant on analysis of income to show that income is prone to response error and does not take into account income fluctuation or volatility.[45] Ultimately, Sullivan called for more of an emphasis on wealth—which includes debt, credit, and consumption— as a more accurate indicator of social class than relying on income alone.[46]

Presidency of the University of Virginia[edit | edit source]

Sullivan was unanimously elected on January 11, 2010, and became the University's first female president on August 1, 2010.[3] However, on June 10, 2012, it was announced to the University that Sullivan would step down from her position on August 15, 2012, after serving only two years of a five-year contract. Leaders of the university’s governing board decided to remove Sullivan, "largely because of her unwillingness to consider dramatic program cuts in the face of dwindling resources and for her perceived reluctance to approach the school with the bottom-line mentality of a corporate chief executive".[47] Counterpunch presented the dispute as being more about differing views of the academic culture and future direction of the university than immediate financial concerns; whether less popular traditional-classical academic studies should be cut, with funding refocused on more profitable and business-oriented courses and programs.[48]Later news reports presented the resignation as an "ouster" organized by Helen Dragas, rector of the university's Board of Visitors; with strong suggestions of Dragas' conflicting views of the future of the university, and personal ambitions playing a role in her actions.[47] Although a formal meeting and vote of the full board was not held at the time, Sullivan was presented with the news of her loss of majority support within the board, and given the 'opportunity' to resign.

The public announcement of her resignation was communicated via an email by Dragas on behalf of the Board of Visitors. The message quoted from Sullivan's resignation letter and cited "philosophical differences" on how the University was to be run. Large-scale protest against the action, and support for Sullivan from students, faculty, alumni, as well as the national academic community, resulted, including a faculty senate demand for the removal of the Board of Visitors leaders – Rector Helen Dragas and Vice Rector Mark J. Kington[49] – and demands from the student government for an explanation for the ouster.[50] In the face of this pressure, including a statement from Virginia Governor Robert McDonnell that he would remove the entire board if they failed to resolve the issue at their June 26 meeting,[51] the board unanimously voted to reinstate Sullivan as president.[52][53]

Shortly after the 2014 publication of the later debunked story A Rape on Campus, Sullivan suspended all Greek organizations until January 9, 2015.[54] In January 2015 Sullivan acknowledged that the story was "discredited." She said, "Before the Rolling Stone story was discredited, it seemed to resonate with some people simply because it confirmed their darkest suspicions about universities—that administrations are corrupt; that today's students are reckless and irresponsible; that fraternities are hot-beds of deviant behavior."[55][56][57]

In January 2017, Sullivan announced her intention to retire effective September 30, 2018. She was succeeded by James Ryan on August 1, 2018 [58]

Interim Provost of Michigan State University[edit | edit source]

On September 16, 2019, Michigan State University named Sullivan as the new interim provost and executive vice president for academic affairs, effective October 1, 2019, serving through the end of the academic year.

Personal life[edit | edit source]

Sullivan is married to legal scholar Douglas Laycock.[2][59]

Gallery[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "President Ryan’s First Day in Office, Told Through Photos". August 1, 2018. https://news.virginia.edu/content/president-ryans-first-day-office-told-through-photos. Retrieved August 12, 2018. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "President Sullivan Ushers In a New Era at U.Va.". UVA Today. August 1, 2010. Archived from the original on December 12, 2012. https://archive.is/20121212132732/http://www.virginia.edu/uvatoday/newsRelease.php?id=12482. Retrieved August 1, 2010. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Teresa A. Sullivan, Extraordinary Leader and Respected Scholar, to Become Eighth President of U.Va.". UVa Today. January 11, 2010. http://www.virginia.edu/uvatoday/newsRelease.php?id=10680. Retrieved January 12, 2010. 
  4. De Vise, Daniel (January 11, 2010). "University of Virginia picks its first female president". Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/11/AR2010011102330.html. 
  5. Cornfield, Daniel B. (2016). "Randy Hodson, Agent of a New Sociology of Work: Remembrance, Reflection, and Celebration.". A Gedenkschrift to Randy Hodson: Working with Dignity. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald Publishing. pp. xvii-xxv. ISBN 9781785607264. OCLC 1000472321. 
  6. "President Teresa A. Sullivan Inducted Into American Academy of Arts and Sciences". October 10, 2015. https://news.virginia.edu/content/president-teresa-sullivan-inducted-american-academy-arts-and-sciences. Retrieved October 1, 2017. 
  7. Sullivan, Teresa, A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay, Lawrence (1988). "Laws, Models, and Real People: Choice of Chapter in Personal Bankruptcy". Law & Social Inquiry 13 (4). 
  8. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1983). "Limiting Access to Bankruptcy Discharge: An Analysis of the Creditors' Data". Wisconsin Law Review (5). 
  9. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1983). "Limiting Access to Bankruptcy Discharge: An Analysis of the Creditors' Data". Wisconsin Law Review (5): 1104-1113. 
  10. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1986). "Folklore and Facts: A Preliminary Report from the Consumer Bankruptcy Project". American Bankruptcy Law Journal 60 (4). 
  11. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawerence (1986). "Folklore and Facts: A Preliminary Report from the Consumer Bankruptcy Project". American Bankruptcy Law Journal 60 (4). 
  12. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1987). "The Use of Empirical Data in Formulating Bankruptcy Policy". Law and Contemporary Problems 50 (2). 
  13. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1987). "The Use of Empirical Data in Formulating Bankruptcy Policy". Law and Contemporary Problems 50 (2). 
  14. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1988). "Laws, Models, and Real People: Choice of Chapter in Personal Bankruptcy". Law & Social Inquiry 13 (4). 
  15. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1988). "Laws, Models, and Real People: Choice of Chapter in Personal Bankruptcy". Law & Social Inquiry 13 (4). 
  16. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1988). "Laws, Models, and Real People: Choice of Chapter in Personal Bankruptcy". Law & Social Inquiry 13 (4). 
  17. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1999). As We Forgive Our Debtors: Bankruptcy and Consumer Credit In America. Washington D.C.: Beard Books. pp. 116. 
  18. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1999). As We Forgive Our Debtors: Bankruptcy and Consumer Credit in America. Washington D.C.: Beard Books. pp. 129. 
  19. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1999). As We Forgive Our Debtors: Bankruptcy and Consumer Credit in America. Washington D.C.: Beard Books. pp. 136. 
  20. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1999). As We Forgive Our Debtors: Bankruptcy and Consumer Credit in America. Washington D.C.: Beard Books. pp. 219. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Sullivan, Teresa, A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay, Lawrence (1999). As We Forgive Our Debtors: Bankruptcy and Consumer Credit in America. Washington D.C.: Beard Books. pp. preface. 
  22. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (2020). The Fragile Middle Class: Americans in Debt. New Have: Yale University Press. pp. xix. 
  23. Sullivan, Teresa A. (1994). "Methodological Realities: Social Science Methods and Business Reorganizations". Washington University Law Quarterly 72 (3). 
  24. Sullivan, Teresa A. (1994). "Methodological Realities: Social Science Methods and Business Reorganizations". Washington University Law Quarterly 72 (3). 
  25. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1994). "Consumer Debtors Ten Years Later: A Financial Comparison of Consumer Bankrupts 1981-1991". American Bankruptcy Law Journal 68 (2). 
  26. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1994). "Consumer Debtors Ten Years Later: A Financial Comparison of Consumer Bankrupts 1981-1991". American Bankruptcy Law Journal 68 (2). 
  27. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1994). "Consumer Debtors Ten Years Later: A Financial Comparison of Consumer Bankrupts 1981-1991". American Bankruptcy Law Journal 68 (2). 
  28. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1997). "Consumer Bankruptcy in the United States: A Study of Alleged Abuse and of Local Legal Culture". Journal of Consumer Policy 20 (2). 
  29. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1997). "Consumer Bankruptcy in the United States: A Study of Alleged Abuse and of Local Legal Culture". Journal of Consumer Policy 20 (2). 
  30. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (1997). "Consumer Bankruptcy in the United States: A Study of Alleged Abuse and of Local Legal Culture". Journal of Consumer Policy 20 (2). 
  31. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (2020). The Fragile Middle Class: Americans in Debt. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 3. 
  32. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (2020). The Fragile Middle Class: Americans in Debt. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 155. 
  33. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (2020). The Fragile Middle Class: Americans in Debt. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 36-7.. 
  34. Jacoby, Melissa B.; Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth (2000). "Rethinking the Debates over Health Care Financing: Evidence from the Bankruptcy Courts". New York University Law Review 76 (2). 
  35. Jacoby, Melissa B.; Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth (2000). "Rethinking the Debates over Health Care Financing: Evidence from the Bankruptcy Courts". New York University Law Review 76 (2). 
  36. Jacoby, Melissa B.; Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth (2000). "Rethinking the Debates over Health Care Financing: Evidence from the Bankruptcy Courts". New York University Law Review 76 (2). 
  37. Sullivan, Teresa A. (2005). "Gender Differences in Accounts of Bankruptcy". Saint Louis University Public Law Review 24 (2). 
  38. Sullivan, Teresa A. (2005). "Gender Differences in Accounts of Bankruptcy". Saint Louis University Public Law Review 24 (2). 
  39. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (2006). "Less Stigma or More Financial Distress: An Empirical Analysis of the Extraordinary Increase in Bankruptcy Filings". Stanford Law Review 59 (2). 
  40. Sullivan, Tereda A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (2006). "Less Stigma or More Financial Distress: An Empirical Analysis of the Extraordinary Increase in Bankruptcy Filings". Stanford Law Review 59 (2). 
  41. Sullivan, Teresa A.; Warren, Elizabeth; Westbrook, Jay Lawrence (2006). "Less Stigma or More Financial Distress: An Empirical Analysis of the Extraordinary Increase in Bankruptcy Filings". Stanford Law Review 59 (2). 
  42. Thorne, Deborah; Elizabeth, Warren; Sullivan, Teresa A. (2009). "The Increasing Vulnerability of Older Americans: Evidence from the Bankruptcy Court". Harvard Law & Policy Review 3 (1). 
  43. Thorne, Deborah; Warren, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Teresa A. (2009). "The Increasing Vulnerability of Older Americans: Evidence from the Bankruptcy Court". Harvard Law & Policy Review 3 (1). 
  44. Sullivan, Teresa A. (2012). "Debt and the Simulation of Social Class". written at Oxford. in Brubaker, Ralph. A Debtor World: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Debt. Oxford University Press. p. 36-37.. 
  45. Sullivan, Teresa A. (2012). written at Oxford. Brubaker, Ralph. ed. Debt and the Simulation of Social Class. Oxford University Press. p. 42. 
  46. Sullivan, Teresa A. (2012). Brubaker, Ralph. ed. Debt and the Simulation of Social Class. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 56. 
  47. 47.0 47.1 Daniel de Vise and Anita Kumar, "U-Va. Faculty Senate to meet in emergency session Sunday over Teresa Sullivan’s ouster", Washington Post, June 17, 2012
  48. Surin, Kenneth. Virginia Politicians and the Slow Strangulation of Its Famous State University (January 2, 2017), CounterPunch
  49. Associated Press (June 18, 2012). "University of Virginia asks rector, vice rector to resign after president’s ouster". https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/higher-education/university-of-virginia-asks-rector-vice-rector-to-resign-after-presidents-ouster/2012/06/18/gJQARKOomV_story.html. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  50. Karin Kapsidelis (June 15, 2012). "U.Va. Student Council seeks full explanation of ouster". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on February 5, 2013. https://archive.is/20130205004958/http://www2.timesdispatch.com/news/2012/jun/15/uva-student-council-seeks-full-explanation-ouster-ar-1990754/. Retrieved June 19, 2012. 
  51. Anita Kumar; Jenna Johnson (June 22, 2012). "McDonnell tells U-Va. board to resolve leadership crisis, or he will remove members". Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/dc-politics/u-va-dean-tapped-for-interim-president-suspends-discussions-about-new-job/2012/06/22/gJQAniQ0uV_story.html. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  52. "U. of Virginia Board Votes to Reinstate Sullivan". The Chronicle of Higher Education. June 26, 2012. http://chronicle.com/article/U-of-Virginia-Board-Votes-to/132603/. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  53. The Associated Press (June 26, 2012). "University of Virginia Board Reinstates President". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2012/06/26/us/ap-us-virginia-president-resigns.html. Retrieved June 26, 2012. 
  54. DeBonis, Mike; Shapiro, T. Rees (November 22, 2014), "U-Va president suspends fraternities until Jan. 9 in wake of rape allegations", The Washington Post, https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/education/u-va-president-suspends-fraternities-until-jan-9-in-wake-of-rape-allegations/2014/11/22/023d3688-7272-11e4-8808-afaa1e3a33ef_story.html, retrieved April 2, 2016 
  55. "Prepared Remarks for Presidential Address on the University". University of Virginia. January 30, 2015. Archived from the original on January 31, 2015. https://web.archive.org/web/20150131151849/http://www.virginia.edu/president/speeches/message150130.html. Retrieved January 30, 2015. 
  56. Schow, Ashe (January 30, 2015). "U.Va. president admits rape story was false; keeps restrictions on fraternities". Washington Examiner. http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/u.va.-president-admits-rape-story-was-false-keeps-restrictions-on-frats/article/2559584. Retrieved January 31, 2015. 
  57. https://www.nbcwashington.com/news/local/UVa-President-School-to-Be-National-Leader-on-Campus-Safety-290399841.html
  58. "Board of Visitors Selects James Ryan as University of Virginia's Next President". UVA Today. September 15, 2017. http://news.virginia.edu/content/board-visitors-selects-james-e-ryan-university-virginias-next-president/. Retrieved September 16, 2017. 
  59. Colleen Flaherty, Transparency vs. Censorship, Inside Higher Ed, May 29, 2014
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